Understanding Computer Science Basics

computer science basics

To learn how to program, it helps to understand Computer Science basics. There are different parts of the computer, such as Algorithms, Data structures, Cryptography, and Operating system. You must learn more than the terms and functions of these areas to be able to build programs. Getting started with this field may be a daunting task, but it isn't impossible. There are several books available that will help you learn more about these topics.

Data structures

There are two main types of data structures: linear and non-linear. Linear data structures are based on the concept of a finite set. In this case, each element is associated with a key that is unique. However, the value does not have to be unique. Instead, multiple elements can have identical values. Non-linear data structures are not as convenient to implement, but they are much more efficient at using memory. The Tree is an example of a multilevel data structure. Each node is a node with a single parent and multiple children.

Arrays and lists are two types of data structures. Arrays and lists are both two dimensional and store data elements sequentially. The array pairs an index with a data element. A linked list, on the other hand, stores data elements in a fixed sequence. A linked list is used when you want to keep track of many items. A linked list can hold many elements at a time, while a tree allows for only two connections.


Algorithms are fundamental to many areas of computing. They are simple steps that produce a specific result and are language independent. Algorithms must produce at least one output in a finite amount of time, and they must be deterministic (each step in the algorithm performs a certain amount of work). They are the basis for many computer programs, and their basic constructs are universally applicable across a variety of programming languages.

Algorithms are the building blocks of computer programs. Whether you're working with databases, operating systems, graphics, or security, algorithms are vital to a computer's ability to do its job. Developing algorithms involves understanding a problem and considering possible alternatives. Algorithms are often based on software and hardware, so understanding these elements can make it easier to create a solution that works in a given situation.


Cryptography is the art of transforming data into a form that is unreadable to anyone but the sender or intended recipient. Cryptography includes cryptanalysis and a set of algorithms and protocols for encryption and decryption. These are the four pillars of cryptography. These principles are used in computer networks to secure data and information. People use cryptography to send and receive messages, digitally sign documents, and secure confidential communications.

The principles of encoding and decrypting data are covered in depth. Various cryptographic techniques and protocols are discussed, as well as how they protect sensitive information. The course also covers modern security standards. Students will learn how to secure data and transactions over the Internet. Depending on their specialization, they may repeat this course up to nine credits. This course requires the completion of several core courses for their degree program. It can count toward the student's overall program requirements.

Operating system

The concept of operating systems is fundamental to the development and operation of a computer. Operating systems have several important purposes and must be constructed in such a way that they will allow for effective development and testing, introducing new functions into the system, and maximising throughput. Resource management is also a vital part of an operating system. In addition to managing the data and programs, operating systems must reduce the load on a computer.

The basic functions of an operating system include memory management and the management of applications. It controls input-output devices, maintains memory and protects data from unauthorized access. It also handles errors gracefully. Operating systems also ensure that applications run in a logical order and are freed from overlapping processes and interrupts. You should also know how operating systems control a computer's memory, such as the eMMC (Emerging File System) and NFS.

Logic gates

If you've studied computer science, you may have learned about the basic concepts of logic gates. You may have already heard of the AND, NOR, and NOT gates. Each of these has its own purpose and is a critical part of a computer's basic design. But did you know that each of these basic building blocks is also used in more complex applications? And that's just the beginning. Learn about the newest logic gates, too!

You've probably seen logic diagrams containing two shapes. Although they look similar, you should think twice before you associate a shape with an OR function. You'll want to consider the fact that the bubbles in an AND logic gate point to different outcomes based on their inputs. Here are a few examples. And don't forget to read Wikipedia's entry on the IMPLY conditional gate.

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